Abrasive belt grinding is a kind of elastic grinding, which is a compound processing technology with multiple functions of grinding, grinding and polishing.
The abrasive grains on the abrasive belt have stronger cutting ability than the abrasive grains of the grinding wheel, so the grinding efficiency is very high. The high efficiency of abrasive belt grinding is manifested in its high removal rate, grinding ratio (the ratio of the weight of the removed workpiece to the weight of the abrasive wear) and the power utilization of the machine tool. At present, the known removal rate of abrasive belt grinding for steel has reached 700mm3/mm·s, even exceeding that of turning or milling. The grinding ratio of the abrasive belt greatly exceeds that of the grinding wheel, as high as 300:1, or even 400:1, while the grinding wheel is only 30:1. The power utilization rate of abrasive belt grinders has reached 80% in the early development of abrasive belt grinding, which is ahead of other machine tools. Today it is as high as 96%. In contrast, abrasive wheel grinders only have 52%, milling machines 57%, and lathes 65 %, so belt grinding is still a good energy-saving processing technology.
In addition to its multiple functions of grinding, grinding and polishing, this is also because:
1) Compared with grinding wheel grinding, belt grinding is called "cold grinding", that is, the grinding temperature is low, and the surface of the workpiece is not prone to burns.
2) The belt grinding system has low vibration and good stability.
Due to the light weight of the abrasive belt, the balance state of the grinding process structure system is easy to control. All the rotating parts (such as contact wheels, driving wheels, tension wheels, etc.) wear very little, and there will be no dynamic imbalance like the grinding wheel. factor.
In addition, the elastic grinding effect of the abrasive belt can greatly reduce or absorb the vibration and impact generated during grinding. The grinding speed is stable, and the belt driving wheel will not be like a grinding wheel. The smaller the diameter, the slower the speed. The high surface quality of the abrasive belt grinding workpiece is mainly manifested in the small surface roughness value, good residual stress state, and no microscopic cracks or metallographic structure changes on the surface.
From the perspective of surface roughness, abrasive belt grinding has reached Ra0.01mm at present, achieving the effect of mirror grinding, and it is very easy to achieve when the roughness value is above Ra0.1mm.
The residual stress on the surface of the abrasive belt grinding workpiece is mostly in the state of compressive stress, and its value is generally -60～-5Kgf/mm2, while the grinding wheel grinding is mostly tensile stress, so the abrasive belt grinding is very helpful to strengthen the surface of the workpiece and improve the workpiece. Fatigue strength.
Abrasive belt grinding precision is high. Due to the improvement of the quality of abrasive belt production and the production level of abrasive belt grinders, abrasive belt grinding has already entered the ranks of precision and ultra-precision machining, with the highest precision reaching below 0.1mm.
This is mainly manifested in:
1) The abrasive belt grinding equipment is simple. Compared with the grinding wheel grinder, the belt grinder is much simpler. This is mainly because the weight of the belt is light, the grinding force is small, the vibration during the grinding process is small, and the rigidity and strength requirements of the machine tool are far lower than the grinding wheel grinder.
2) The operation of abrasive belt grinding is simple and the auxiliary time is short. Whether it is manual or motorized belt grinding, the operation is very simple. From changing and adjusting the abrasive belt to clamping the workpiece to be processed, all of this can be completed in a short period of time.
3) The belt grinding ratio is large, the power utilization rate of the machine tool is high, and the cutting efficiency is high. This reduces the cost of tools and energy for cutting materials of the same weight or volume, and takes a short time.
4) Abrasive belt grinding is very safe, with low noise and dust, easy to control, and good environmental benefits.
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